Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali

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When the knowledge acquired by a concentrated mind becomes firmly fixed in the mind and is retained there, it is called Samprajilita-yoga. In the Siitra the word 'Sarva' or 'all' being absent i. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. When the faculty of Prakhyi 3 is influenced by the principles of Rajas and Tamas, the mind becomes inclined towards power and external objects. When it is dominated by Tamas it inclines to impious acts, false knowledge, non-detachment and weakness 4.

When the veil ofinfatuation is completely removed and the mind becomes completely luminous, that is to say, when it has a clear con- ception of the cogniser, the organs of cognition, and the objects cognised, that mind being influenced by a trace of Rajas, tends towards virtue, wisdom, detachment and power 5. When the contamination of Rajas is entirely removed, the mind rests in itself 6 , realises the distinction between Buddhi and the pure Self, and proceeds to that form of contemplation which is known as Dharmamegha-dhyana.

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Yogins describe this form of contemplation as the highest wisdom. AB there is still a touch of impurity in Viveka-khyati, a mind indifferent to it shuts out even that realisation. In such a state the mind retains the latent impressions alone. That is known as Nirvija or objectless Samidhi. It is called ABamprajiiita-yoga because in this state there is no Samprajiiana 9. Thus Yoga which is cessation of the fluctuations of the Inind can be of two kinds. In connection with the philosophy of salvation we find in the Mahibbirata : "There is no knowledge like that of Silpkhya and no power like that of Yoga.

The suppression of the fluctuations means keeping the mind fixed on any particular desired object, i. This is called Yoga. Only ezternal objects do not form the subject of such contemplation, mental states a1so come under it. When the mind acquires the power of remaining fixed, then any modification arising in the mind can also be retained to the desired extent.

We should bear in mind that our mental weakness is only our inability to retain our good intentions fixed in the mind ; but if the lluctuations of the mind are overcome, we shall be able to remain fixed in our good intentions and thus be endowed with mental power. As the calmness would increase, that power shall also increase. The acme of such calmness is Samidhi concentration or keeping the mind fixed on any desired object, in a manner in which the awareness of one's individual self gets lost.

Although on a perusal of religious and philosophical books we understand the reasons for our miseries and know the ways of escape from them, yet we cannot attain emancipa- tion on account of our lack of mental power. The Upanqads teach us that one who knows tha bliss of Brahman is not afraid of anything. Knowing that, and knowing fully well that death has really no horror for such persons. But one who has attained mastery over all organs through concentration and has acquired all round purity can escape from the threefold misery.

One who becomes suecessful in concentration can be liberated even in this very life. It will thus be clear from the above Jhat liberation cannot be attained unless one passes through the process of concentration. Liberation is the highest virtue attainable through concentration. Happiness is the result of virtue; knowledge of Self or the state of liberation brings about peace in the shape of cessation of misery which is the highest form of welfare. In this world, whoever is aiming at Moqa in whichever form it may be, is following that path in some way or other.

Worship of God brings about calmness of mind ; charity and self-restraint also lead indirectly to calmness. Therefore all devotees the world over, consciously or unconsciously are practising in some form or other, the universal virtue of suppressing the lluctuations of the mind. When such mind is influenced by Rajas and Tamas, i. That sort of disturbed mind never feels happy in meditatiog oo the Self Atmi or in being detached from the objects of the seoses ; rather it feels happy in the abundant fulfilment ofits desires and enjoyment of the objects of the senses. If persons with such a mind arc religious devotees they banker after supernormal powers ; if not, they aspire after the acquisitioo of earthly possessions.

The former take delight in religious and the latter in worldly discourses. Gradually as the Sattva Gur. Men with distracted minds do not want real peace but only an increase of power. Men with minds dominated by the principle of Tamas, Jack the ability of discrimination between right and wrong and engage in vicious act or acts which cause great unhappiness. They arc deluded and have wrong knowledge about the nature of ultimate reality. When the state of infatuation is cft'ectivcly subdued, the mind starts to have knowledge of the Self; the organs of cognition and the objects cogniscd.

A little mental activity still persists bccaUIC even then the mind is occupied with Abhyisa and Vairigya. In other words, it is fully endowed with the clarity of the Sattva Guva, and becomes pure as gold when relieved of its dross through fire. Moreover, the mind becomes full with the realisation of Punqa, the pure Self; or with the knowledge thereof.

This is what is called Samipatti i. Siitra IV. This is also called Viveka-khyiiti or enlightenment of the distinction between Puru1a and Buddhi. Such knowledge is the drcctive means of preventing a relapse into empirical life. As the concentration called Dharmamegha leads to the cessation of all misery and as in that condition there arises indifference even to powers like omniscience etc.

The last qualification signifies that it is that to which objects are presented by Buddhi. In other words, it is that which makes Buddhi conscioua and leads to the awareness of objects related to Buddhi. Although objects are revealed under its influence, pure Consciousness is neither active nor mutable. That is why it has been called untransmissible, i. It is 'pure' inasmuch as it is not liable to be influenced by the principles of inertia or action as the principle of Sattva is.

Swami Hariharananda Aranya - Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali (1963)

Moreover, it is fully self-luminous. It is 'infinite' not in the sense of being an aggregation of an infinite number of finite units, but in the sense that the conception of finiteness is not to be applied to it in any sense. That manifestation which is effected with the help of a manifestor, which is more or less restless and obscured under the influence of its constant companions, Rajas and Tamas, is Sittvika manifestation or manifestation of Buddhi. Therefore, Buddhi is opposite to self-luminant Chiti-'akti. After having realised Buddhi through concentration, when one experiences the reality of pure Conscioumess in an arrested state of mind, there dawns the enlightenment of the distinction between Buddhi and pure Self and this is called Viveka-khyati.

When with the help of Vivcka-khyati and supreme renunciation the arrested state of the mind is made permanent, the state of liberation or Kaivalya ensues. Unless Samprajllita concentration is attained it is not possible to reach Asamprajflita concentration. When the mind is in such a state, i. At that time pure Consciousness-the Seer-abides in its own self, as it docs in the state of liberation 2.

In the empirical state, pure Consciousness docs not appear to be so, though in fact it is so. Why it is so has been explained in the next Siitra. I Pure Consciousness is the impartial witness of Buddhi and the latter appean to it as an object. The dominant Buddhi is the sense of'I'. In Nirodha, suppression of the mind is for a temporary period, while in Kaivalya the mind disappean, never to appear again, The expressions rhe Seer's 'abiding in itself', and 'not abiding in i11elf' in the sense of being identified with a mental state are only descriptions from outside and are really verbal.

The gloss on the arrested state of mind will be found in the notes to Siitra 18 of Book I. The modifications of mind that take place in the empirical state appear identified with the Seer. Mind is like a magnet and acts only in proximity 3 , and by its character of being an object it appears to become the property of Punlp, its owner 4. On account of the close association of Buddbi and the pure Consciousness in the same cognitive process, the objects impttsSed on Buddhi are revealed by the Conaciouaness that is Puru,a.

It is said in the Puril. Paiichafikha was the first to compose aphorisms on the principles of Sirilkhya philosophy. Such of his sayings as have been cited by the commentator on Yoga-aiitras in support of his observations are priceless gems The book from which these have been extracted is now Jost. About Panchaiikha it is stated in the Mahibhirata that it was be who fully determined all the principles relating to the virtue of renuncia- tion and had no doubts in his mind about them. The word 'Darfana' in the quotation from Pa!

The basic knower behind all these phases of 'I' is Consciousness itself which is the Seer - the O, The Seer is Consciousness. Buddhi reveals things by appearing to be conscious under the influence of the Consciousness, that is, the Seer. That which is manifested or that which we come to know is the object. Colours, sounds, etc. Knowledge relating to them is acquired through the mind. In the knowledge of objects, 'I' am the the knower, i. Generally, matters relating to our mind are known to us by introspection. Therefore, when the process of knowing takes place in the mind before we come to analyse it, we first become aware of it in introspection and then, again in recollection.

Though the mind acts as an instrument of the Seer in the matter ofacquisi- tion of knowledge, yet on certain occasions it itself becomes an object of knowledge to the Seer. The constituent cause of the mind is Asmita or the cognition of 'I'. The cognitions of objects appearing in the mind are the varying modifications of the I-sense.

When the power is acquired of keeping the mind calm, then we can have an intuition of this Asmiti. If we concentrate on the changing I-sense, we can realise that the knowledge of anything is a change of this Asmita and is different from it. Then when by controlling the I-sense ""e can remain on the pure Asmiti-levcl, we can realise that the Ahamkara is different from the Self and is fit to be discarded.

Only pure I-sense or Buddhi then becomes an instrument of knowledge. Buddhi then being separated becomes an object of knowledge. It is thus how everything from Buddhi downwards is regarded as an object. Punqa or the Seer is self-luminous, while Buddbi and other objects arc revealed by something else. They appear as conscious under the influence of Comciousness or the Self. This is the nature of the subject and the object. The process of realisation of Buddhi etc.

I fftr. Jta-vrttis 4.

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Jta-vrttis and vice wr. Latent impressions are left equally by mental processes which lead to misery as well as those which lead to freedom therefrom. These latent impressions again give rise to fluctuations of the mind 6. In this way until absolute concentration is attained by a mind in a suppressed state, the wheel of fluctuations and impressions goes on revolving. When mind is freed from the operation of the Gu1. I The mental fluctuations which are based on the five afflictions like Avidyi etc. Siitras If any of the aftlictions, namely, wrong knowledge or nescience, the cognition ofBuddhi as the pure Self, attachment or pusion, antipathy or aversion, and fear o death, causes a fluctuation or modification of the mind, then tbat is called 'KU.

It is so called because the impression that is left behind by such a modification, produces an afflicted mental state. It is because thele Vrttis cause 'Klefa' or sorrow that they arc also called 'Klefa' or afflictions. Vijilina-bhilqu has explained Vrtti as that which provides the wherewithal for one to live. Cbitta-vrtti implies the various knowing statea of the mind. As the mind ceases to function without these states, they are called its Vrttis. When through correct knowledge nescience etc.

For example, an illusion like the cognition that 'I' am the body, or the fluctuations of the mind arising out of actions done under the influence of such an illusion, are harmful processes founded on nacience. Deep contemplation or conduct based on correct knowledge that 'I' am not the body gives rile to processes which are free from afBictions. As the sequence of such fluctuations might terminate the -umption of the body, i.

When through the 6nal discriminative knowledge, nescience is destroyed, the state of mind arising thereftom is the Aldq! In reply, the commentator explains that the 'beneJicial' modifications, though mixed with the harmful ones, remain distinct from theln as a shaft of light coming into a dark room remains distinct from the surrounding darkness. The intervening period of practice of right conduct and detachment might be fruitful in giving rise to 'beneficial' modifications.

In the same manner through the loopholes in the stream of 'beneficial' fluctuations, the 'harmful' ones might also creep in. As the overt modifications continue to exist as latent impress- ions, the 'beneficial' ones arising amongst the 'harmful' ones might gradually become stronger and eventually shut out the flow of 'harmful' fluctuations. The retention in mind of any particular experience is called its Satbskira or latent impression or latency.

In what follows it is being shown which Vrttis are harmful and which are not. True knowledge Prami11a like Viveka-khyiti and valid cognition conducive to it is tree from harm while the opposite is harmful. At the time of Viveka-khyiti or when a Ninni11a-chitta see IV. The recollection Smrti of discriminative knowledge and of those cognitions relating to Self which lead to such knowledge is harmless while the opposite one is harmful.

The slumber, before and after which the thought of Self predominates or which gets reduced in intensity by such thought and which is just enough for health during spiritual practice, is harmless sleep. That is why what looks like existing in a reasonable empirical view, will, as long as such outlook pcnists, continue to appear as existing. All phenomenal objects arc mutable. They do not always exist in the same form.

Their material assumes different forms, e. In the pot the earth is not destroyed ; only the earth has changed form and is existing in the form of a pot. Thus everything ordinarily visible is existing in one form or another. We cannot think of the total absence of anything. In this change the form in which the thing existed before is called the continuing cause of the subsequent form, as the earth is of the pot.

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When a thing is reduced to its causal substance then it is said to be destroyed. Therefore, 'destruction' means dissolution of a thing in its original causal substance. Thus in the ordinary view a liberated mind will be presumed to be existing as merged in its principal matrix, the A vyakta.

From the spiritual standpoint, when the threefold misery ceases effectively, then, there being no more chance of its being manifested, the mind lapses and looks like having disappeared. The mind then remains in a state which is the equilibrium of the three Gm;ias, only the cause of misery, oia. In the Dhylina or contemplation known as Dharmamegha the mind abides in its real nature, oi.. Freedom of the mind from the incubus of Rajas and Tamas docs not! I It might be urged that when dreamless sleep is being counted as a fluctuation or the mind, why are not waking state and dream state being so counted?

Why arc not volition etc. In reply, it is to be stated that the waking state is occupied mainly with Pram'ii:ia, though Vikalpa etc. The states or waking and dream have not been mentioned separately as by the mention of the other four, viz. Similarly, volition has not been specifically mentioned because it arises through modifications of cognition and stops with the shutting out or such modifications.

By the five false cognitions, volition has also been implied, as resolutions arc formed through attachment, hatred, avenion, etc. In reality the author of the Siltra has mentioned only the fundamental modifications which should be controlled. That is why the feelings or states of fluctuation like happiness or misery have not been included.

Happiness or sorrow cannot be controlled by itself; it is to be eliminated by shutting out valid cognition etc. In the Yoga philosophy the word Vrtti has been used technically to imply cognition or conscious mental stat The Vrttis in Yoga mean the variations of Prakhyi or the Sattva-clcmcnt of the mind. The following examples will make the idea clear. You see an elephant. The eyes only see a black mass ; its other properties arc not known by the eyes. Knowledge about its power of carrying loads, its power of movement, its mode of life, its toughness, its trumpets had been gathered before by your appropriate sense-organs and retained in the mind.

The inner faculty which combines all these fragments of knowledge after the elephant is seen and produces the concept that it is an elephant, is Chitta. The feeling of satisfaction or pleasure that you may have at the sight of the elephant is also an action of Chitta or mind-stuff' and is only a reappearance of the feeling of pleasure which you have experienced before.

By its movements or fluctuations the existence of the mind is felt ; the absence of fluctuations can only mean the lapse of Chitta. The modifications of the mind can be divided into several main heads accord- ing to the three constituent principles or Guvas. Out of them only the principal controllable ones have been mentioned by the author of the Siitras as being five in number so far as Yogic practice is concerned. Retention is the subliminal or late11t impression. The feeling or impression of things seen, of things retained in the mind as memory.

Conation or willing being a cogniscd or conscious function is also of the nature of Pratyaya. Samskiras or latent, i. Thus mind has two properties,.. Pratyaya and Samskira.

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Of these, Pratyaya is called Chitta-vrtti or the modification of the mind. In this science the fluctuations or modifications taken collectively arc ordinarily known as Chitta or mind. Since the fluctuations arc cognitive by nature of knowlcdgc, they arc the transformations of Buddhi which is the transformation of Sattva. That is why the words Chitta and Buddhi have been used in the same sense at many places. Similarly, 'Chitta-vrtti' or 'modification ofthe mind' has been designated 'Buddhi-vrtti' or modification of Buddhi. The words 'Chitta' and 'Manas' have been used in the same sense in many places, but really speaking, Manas is the sixth sense.

Mental perception is due to that awareness just as visual knowledge is due to the eye. Thus mind, the instrument of conation, is the internal centre of the organs of knowledge and action, while Chitta- vrtti or modification or fluctuation of the mind is nothing but knowledge itself. The specific knowledge of things cognised, done or retained by the mind is Cbitta-vrtti.

It should be remembered that this is the ancient division of the mind. The outcome 4 of this perceptual modification is the Self's awareness of this modification as undistinguished from the Self. That the Self is the reflector ofBuddhi 5 will be established later on. Inference is that kind of mental modification which is based on the general characteristics of a knowable and is concerned with the entity viz. For example, the moon and the stars have motion as Chaitra name of a person has, for they, like him, change their position ; the Vindhya Hills do not change its location and so it has no motion.

That testimony may be false, i. That trans- ferred cognition which has its basis in the direct experience of the first authoritative exponent or in his correct inference is genuine and perfectly valid 8. The instrument of Prami, i. This definition of Pramir. In reply it bas to be stated that cognition of a non-existent thing is really the cognition of existent things other than that one and is just a 'Vikalpa'. The absence of a thing is in reality some other positive thing and is asserted only in relation to something present. For example, when we do not see a pot in a place, we first see a vacant and illuminated place, and then we form an idea in the mind that the pot is absent.

In fact, no knowledge can be formed without reference to an object. All the knowledge that we have of things that exist is mainly of two kinds, m. Prami9a and experience. Of these, Pramii. Perception, inference and testimony-all these Prami11as are characterised by this feature. Realisation of something not known before is also called Prami ; its instrument is called Pramil a. The definition of Prami9a distinguishes it from memory.

In this science of Yoga, certain experiences have been taken to be mental 'perception' and thus included in the category of Pramil a. Recollection is not, however, mental perception because it is the feeling again of things felt before. Therefore, Pramil a and recollection are dift'erent. That is why these objects affect or modify the mind. When the mind comes into contact with an object through the sense-channel, then the mind is affected or changed.

Each modification of the mind-stuff is one piece of knowledge. The five external sense-organs and the sixth internal one, called Manas, are the channels recognised by the science ofYoga. Through the external sense-channels we get only an inchoate elementary sensation, which is just a form of reception. Then with the help of the other functions of the mind we ascertain that it is the voice of the crow. This complete knowledge is mental perception. In the perception of mental objects, we get adequate knowledge of cognition, i.

The sensation of pleasure etc. The full knowledge thereof which follows is the adequate knowledge of a mental object. Like the action of external sense- organs, the mind receives the impressions first ; next when the mind-stuff is affected thereby, i. Thus in all mental perceptions, reception comes first and then comes the full perception.

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Therefore, the sure awareness of a thing outside the senses is Prami9a. This definition is applicable to all direct perceptions. Every object has its peculiar properties of sound, touch, etc. Take the case of a piece of brick. Its colour and shape cannot be exactly described by howsoever large a number of words we may use ; but when we sec it we can at once have the exact cognition.

The word 'mainly' bas been used to imply that some awareness of the general features is present therein, though knowledge of the special properties and features pre- dominates. That which is present in many things is called Siminya or generality. Words like fire, water, etc. On account of nature and shape, fire may be of many kinds though their general name is 'fire'. Existence is a common feature of all things. In direct apprehension knowledge of such general features is also present in a modified form.

In the following instances of inference and verbal communication, however, the awareness is only of the general features, because they are established by words, signs, etc. It cannot be said that in the case of 'Chaitra name ofa person exists'-a case established by inference or verbal communication-we have an instance of the knowledge of a particular object; because if Chaitra had been seen before, the mention of the word 'Chaitra' will only bring the recollection which is not a Prami9a of Chaitra.

The knowledge of 'existing at a certain place' will only fall under the category of Pramii;ia. If Chaitra was not seen before, the statement will not convey any particular information about Chaitra. Inference or verbal communication can only convey general and partial information. Vijilina-bhilqu says it is the 'effect of Vp:ti as Kara! In illustrating the expression, 'the self's awareness of this modification', he says that it is like the cognition of 'I am knowing the pot.

In direct apprehension, the perception is-'This is a pot' or 'The pot exists. The first, 'This is a pot' or 'The pot exists' is direct perception. This bas been stated already in the 4th Siitra. The mental modification due to direct perception may last for a moment and may be followed by the stream of similar states. But when the perceptual modification concerning 'a pot' arises, then it is not dilferentiated u 'I am seeing the pot,' there is only the feeling that the 'pot' is present.

In knowing the pot, the Seer behind it is present ; that is why the Seer can be said to exist in an undifferentiated form in the awareness of the pot, though u a matter of fact they are really different. This can be undcntood in another way. All knowledge is a transfor- mation of Aharilkira or the cognition of 'I' and 'mine'. Of these, perce- ptual knowledge is the transmutation of the I-sense due to the action of an external objecL Therefore, knowledge of a pot is only a modifiction of the I-sense.

But the Seer is included in the 'I', that is why in the perception of the pot, the transmutation of the I-sense in the shape of knowledge of the pot and the Seer are undifFercntiated. Of course, by reftection and reasoning we can undcntand the difference between the Seer and the pot, but that is not possible in a mental ftuctuation like the unreftective perception relating to the pot. It may be urged that if the punqa is the illuminator of various modifications then he must have variety or he must be subject to change.

This contention would have been valid if variability could alfect Punqa. But this is not so. It is only the senses and the mind which are subject to variations. If objects are analysed one comes upon only subtle activity which is appearing and disappearing every moment. Under its inftuence Buddhi or the pure I- sense is also undergoing subtle change from moment to moment.

Buddhi is co-existent with mutation and Pur""' is what remains when such mutation ceases. That is why that mutation cannot reach Puru.. This is really how a Yogin realises the principle of Pu,, Then gradually by deep meditation he realises the disappearance of those principles in the I-sense. By realising that the subtle principles ofTanmitra are nothing but variations of the I-sense, he arrives at the pure awareness of the 'I' u a principle or category and then with discriminative knowledge he realises the Pu,,..

Reflection generally means change of direction of a ray of light after striking a surface like that of a mirror. Similarly, 'reflection' here implies a change or seeming change in the character of a perception or cognition caused by its contact with some other reagent. The perception or cognition, at a given moment of Buddhi is reflected at a later moment as ego.

The root cause of this reflection is Puru"8. To be able to think 'I exist' is also the result of such reflection. For all lower physical sensations or perceptions of objects, the centre of reflection is Buddhi or the organs below it. But the reflector of Buddhi, which is the highest form of the phenomenal Self, is beyond Buddhi ; that is the immutable Consciousness or Puru,a.

This idea of reflection is the way of reaching the Puru"8 principle. This really is Viveka-khyati or final discriminative knowledge. Concomitance means agreement in presence or agreement in absence, while non-concomitancc implies non-agreement in presence or absence. Broadly speaking, having realised the nature of these kinds of relationship and having known one of the two related things, to know the rest is inference.

When non-existence or something is inferred, it implies the knowledge of the existence or some other things ; this has been explained before. Cognition of a noa-existcnt or negative thing has no place in this science. In every case there may not be a correct cognition. In some instances doubts arise and in some others the doubts arc dispelled through inference. For example, 'So and so is reliable, when he says it, it must be true. This is inferential proof. From this many think that Agama or verbal testimony is not a separate source of valid knowledge.

But it is not so. Some men are found naturally to possess the power to find out what is in another mind, or can communicate his own thought to another. They also possess the power of thought-transference. Telepathy is of this class. If you think that a book is in such and such a place, that thought will at once rise in their mind, i.

How does the cognition come to the thought-readen? Not by direct perception. The words uttered mentally by one penon and the sure knowledge arising out or their meaning affects the other mind and produces similar knowledge in that mind. That must be admitted to be a cognition dilferent from direct perception or inference. With ordinary men this power of thought- reading not being fully developed they cannot comprehend what is in another mind unless the words are uttered.

We generally express our thoughts by words ; that is why we have to express the thoughts by words if we wish to impress othen by it. There arc men whose sure knowledge of things seen or experienced by them will not carry conviction with you, but there are others whose words as soon as uttered will impress you. They possess such power that their ideas conveyed to you through their words get fixed in your mind. Famous oraton are like that. People, whose words are accepted without question, are called Apta or reliable penons.

That is why these are called Agamas. But that is not strictly so, because in cognition by verbal communication there must be a speaker and a listener. As inference and direct perception might be faulty at times, so if there is any error in the Apta, his communication would be erroneous. Only verbal knowledge, i. Abhinava Gupta has called it transfer of power through all'eetion. Why is Viparyaya not Pramaq. Because that is demo- lished by correct knowledge of a thing which exists in reality.

False cognition is sublated by correct knowledge, e. This wrong knowledge or Viparyaya that causes aflliction has five parts. They are nescience, Asmiti or egoism, attachment, hate and fear of death-the five 'Kldas'. These will be explained in connection with the impurities of the mind. Fluctuations of mind thus vary 8CCOrding to the buis on which they arc founded. Prami is the mental power which exhibits a real thing. Knowledge derived through concentration is the highest form of Prami. Ncscience etc. Their common feature is misconception and these can all be shut out by.

Viparyaym is the aeneral name for all forms of like ncscicnce etc. Any misapprehension can be called a Viparyaya, but those misconceptions which Yogins consider to be the roots of mimes Hd eliminable, are regarded as Viparyayas of the nature of afBiction Kida. UleatJoa Cal Oa Verllal CopUloa la Similarly, Purup is inactive and devoid of characteristics of matter.

In the phrase 'Puru,a has the character of not being created,' no positive quality relating to Purup is being indicated but the mere lack of the property of being created is implied. I There are expressions and words which have no answering reality. From hearing those words or expressions, an ideation takes place in our minds. Those creatures who. We use that won! It is, however, not possible to comprehend the real significance of that word.

We can undentand the significance of 'finite' and from that an insubstantial and vague ideation takes place in our mind through the word 'infinite'. The words 'infinite', 'innumerable', etc. In this sense 'infinite' and 'innumerable' are not verbal delusion or vague ideation. But if wc take 'infinite' as the measure of a totality, then it will be a verbal delusion because the moment wc speak of a whole, wc will be thinking of a 'finite' thing. When Yogins attempt to gain correct knowledge of internal and external matter thro.

Essential cognition or knowledge filled with truth l. In reality until imaginary cognition disappcan liom the thought process, real l;tta or realised truth cannot be perceived. Best For. Web, Tablet. Content Protection. Learn More. Flag as inappropriate. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders.

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Because they have been refined and simplified, they are easy to use. In addition to the recipes, the book contains a glossary of ingredients with their Hindi equivalents, instruction for the preparation of certain essential items, and general information on cooking and equipment. Hatha Yoga Pradipika. Pancham Singh. David Gordon White. The Alchemical Body excavates and centers within its Indian context the lost tradition of the medieval Siddhas. Working from previously unexplored alchemical sources, David Gordon White demonstrates for the first time that the medieval disciplines of Hindu alchemy and hatha yoga were practiced by one and the same people, and that they can be understood only when viewed together.

White opens the way to a new and more comprehensive understanding of medieval Indian mysticism, within the broader context of south Asian Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Islam. Revival: An Introduction to Yoga Claude Bragdon. Account of the origins, history and practice of Yoga from the viewpoint of someone who is learned, but is not himself a practicioner.

Condition: Acceptable. Seller Inventory mon More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Published by Dev Books About this Item: Dev Books, This text on Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali is based on his Yoga Sutras In the Yoga Sutras Patanjali brought together various principles and practices of Yoga prevalent at his time into a coherent system The sutras are short forms with a few essential words each The sutras therefore need extensive explanations in order to understand their implicationsThis text presents the teachings of Patanjali in some logical order in three Sections In the first section a brief Introduction to Yoga and its kinds and the Yoga Tradition in India are presented The Yoga Tradition covers the origin of Yoga Yoga in the Vedas Yoga in the Upanishads Yoga in Epics Yoga in the Bhagavad Gita Patanjali?

More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with any used book purchases. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Condition: Good. Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting.

More information about this seller Contact this seller Trade Paperback. Condition: Very Good-. Trade paperback in very good minus condition. Condition: Used: Good. Minimal wear. Seller Inventory SKU Published by [Calcutta] : University of Calcu About this Item: [Calcutta] : University of Calcu, A good condition copy without dust jacket.

Age related shelfwear to the boards. Pages are all intact, uncreased and unmarked, overall a good book. Good condition is defined as: a copy that has been read but remains in clean condition. All of the pages are intact and the cover is intact and the spine may show signs of wear. The book may have minor markings which are not specifically mentioned. Most items will be dispatched the same or the next working day.

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Yoga philosophy of Patanjali – Cooking Cosmos

Published by University of Calcutta. About this Item: University of Calcutta. Condition: Fair. Cover and binding are worn but intact. A reading copy in fair condition. Loose front hinge.