The Engineers Manual of Construction Site Planning

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About this product. Their recommendations can also be used during the design phase, they say, before the building contractor is selected, to assure that the designed building can in fact be constructed, and to calculate a control estimate to help the owner weigh bids and predict the potential duration of the construction. Among the topics are initial data, outlining site management after the contract is signed, on-site safety requirements, and requirements for work equipment.

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The Engineer's Manual of Construction Site Planning - Online Civil

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Opens image gallery Image not available Photos not available for this variation. Learn more - opens in new window or tab Seller information greatbookprices2 See all greatbookprices2 has no other items for sale. They shall be kept and safeguarded for at least 10 ten years. The Department reserves the right to request all calculations and to have any plans and calculations submitted by the Consultant checked and inspected with the knowledge of the Consultant, by another consulting firm or any other person or firm.

In Section F is a table giving references to the newest Design Guidelines available. Section F will periodically be updated and published on the Departmental website, i.


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Branch pipes to buildings are the responsibility of the Architect. This includes as-built information, local authority requirements and preferences on technical detail and operating data e. Services to be relocated must be identified. If this cannot be done Treasury approval has to be obtained to work outside the said property. This aspect shall be thoroughly investigated and the financial implications thereof reported on at the report stage. In cases where no existing water or sewer services are available, a report recommending the preferred water and sanitation system to be used, must be forwarded to the Department for approval before detail design commences.

The position of such ducting must be obtained from the Architect.

The Engineer's Manual of Construction Site Planning has been added

Such ducting must be provided in accordance with the requirements of the supplier of the system. Details of service markers are given in Annexure C. Sidewalks and or pedestrian walkways must be provided where required. Cognizance must be taken of section A. The investigation will assist the engineer in the selection of suitable foundation types, the preparation of adequate and economic foundation designs, the selection of appropriate embankment slopes and the preparation of reliable tender documents. It will also provide guidance to the Contractor in the preparation of his tender and the execution of the work.

It is essential that the work be carried out in a competent manner, soil profiles are described using standard terminology, the results are reported in full and the validity of the information is not disclaimed. These will have to be agreed with the Departmental Project Manager at the appropriate stage of work. After agreement has been reached on the work to be undertaken and whether geophysical investigations are required, the engineer shall obtain at least three quotations for such geophysical investigations, and he shall submit a report including his recommendation to the Departmental Project Manager for a ruling.

After the geophysical investigations have been completed the Engineer shall prepare draft tender documents for the detailed investigation which will include some or all the following: exploratory holes, in situ testing, laboratory testing, survey to set out and pick up positions and levels of exploratory holes, profiling holes, logging cores and photographing the cores.

The draft documents shall be submitted to the Department for approval before tenders or quotations are obtained for the work. Tenders shall be invited for the work unless the estimated value of the work is considered by the Department to be too low to justify calling for tenders. In such cases, contractors selected with the approval of the Department shall be invited to quote for the work.

The phases include a desk study, site reconnaissance, preliminary fieldwork, detailed investigation and verification of conditions during construction. A guide to the The exploitation of materials is controlled by the Minerals Act No. Careful consideration should be taken of water pressure sensitivity of the water supply measured over at least a hour normal workday cycle.

The preferred water supply system shall be water of a suitable quality provided by the Local Authority. The method, which is however selected, shall be thoroughly investigated and the financial feasibility thereof motivated at the report stage. The Civil Engineer must facilitate the application procedure. The purpose of storing water is to meet pressure balancing requirements and to cater for emergencies e. A realistic factor shall be applied to take into account the deterioration of flow due to the internal corrosion of the pipe work in the supply network.

A factor after 50 years of usage should be adopted.


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Concrete pipes are not recommended in reticulation systems. Special attention shall be given during the design of water supply pipelines to the corrosive nature and other properties of the in-situ soil and their effect on pipeline materials proposed for the project. Soil tests shall be carried out to determine the effect of the soil properties on the pipe materials proposed. The materials to be used shall be agreed upon by the Department and the Local Authority at the report stage.

Depending on economy, water quality and site conditions, the use of uPVC pipes is preferred by the Department for pipes larger than 75mm diameter and HDPE for pipes equal to and smaller than 75mm diameter. In dolomitic areas only HDPE pipes may be used underground, unless specifically approved otherwise by the Department. Internal burrs of welded pipes shall be removed on completion of the welding or limited in height where approved by the Department.

The use of resilient seal valves is preferred. Valves must be clockwise closing. The positions of air and scour valves shall be carefully determined during the detail design of the pipe system.


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  4. All necessary tools to open valves and manhole covers shall be supplied as part of the Contract. A minimum of two tools for each application is required. Requirements depend on the risk category and standards have been set on the basis of a minimum flow for a given period a from a single hydrant and b from a group of hydrants within a given area. It is also important to obtain local fire regulations and requirements as well as to determine the ability booster pumps, etc.

    As far as possible, these parameters must be included and reported on in the fire design of the water distribution system. The capacity and ability of the Local Authority to assist in fire fighting activities must be ascertained and reported on. Where possible, hydrants should only be installed on pipes 75mm in diameter or larger.

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    See following table for proposed fire water flows and pressures. Water and fire connections into buildings must be separate architectural. No valves are permitted on fire connections. Where large areas are to be irrigated a detailed study will be required. Isolating valves shall be placed in the most economical practical positions possible and in such a manner as to isolate portions of the supply with minimal disruption to the rest of the reticulation network. The system available static pipe pressure shall determine the class of pipes to be specified.

    Even if pressure relief valves are specified, the pipe class shall be specified not to be less than 90 m water pressure. Air and scour valves shall be suitably placed so as to ensure the proper working and maintenance of the reticulation network. Pipeline markers, as specified in Section C. Water meters shall be installed at functional facilities such as the cellblock, kitchen, laundry etc. In dolomitic areas additional water meters will be required for water loss monitoring purposes.

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    All sites shall be equipped with a quality glycerin filled pressure meter just downstream of the site bulk water meter. Graduations shall be in kPa and shall be readable to an accuracy of at least 50kPa. Where the maximum incoming pressure exceeds kPa, adjustable pressure reducing equipment shall be installed in the supply lines feeding the buildings, just inside the buildings. Before a sanitation system is designed, the Consulting Engineer should examine the available options and select the most appropriate solution for the project.

    Human waste can either be treated on site before disposal, or removed from the site and treated elsewhere. This is dependent on the requirements of the Environmental Impact Assessment. The method, which is selected, shall be thoroughly investigated and the total financial feasibility thereof motivated at the report stage. The net present value over a period of 20 years, using the formula in paragraph 1. An interest rate equal to the current capital lending rate minus the current escalation rate shall be used in the calculation.

    Many commercial manufacturers provide on-site disposal systems that may be a variant of the above. When the Consulting Engineer decides to opt for an on-site sewage disposal system, the selection of the most appropriate solution will depend on its particular application. The Consultant will, however, be responsible for the successful placing in operation of the plant. Small plants can generally be categorised as biological disc plants or activated sludge plants designed to operate satisfactorily at both the minimum initial and maximum final design flows.

    The consultant will be required to submit a draft operation and maintenance manual with his preliminary design report to the Department. The draft operation report shall clearly spell out the operating personnel required as well as the hours they will have to work. A normal 5 day, 8 hour per day week must be strived for as far as possible. Only when the Department is satisfied that the proposed Should the Department conceive that the proposed process will create difficult, error prone or costly maintenance conditions, the Department will require the consultant to submit an alternative design.

    The capability of the plant to be successfully operated by a normal operating team as defined in the Water Act, remains the sole responsibility of the Consultant. The final and complete Operating and Maintenance Manual shall be supplied one week after the successful commissioning of the sewage treatment plant. The proposed sewer system shall be capable of conveying the proposed flows taking into account the average daily flows and peak flows that may occur.

    The existing system shall be checked for capability of maintaining the proposed additional flows added to it. The peak flow factor to be designed for should be 3. Intermediate values can be interpolated. Where gravity flow or pumping of sewage to a central treatment plant is not feasible, on site septic tanks must be considered.

    Conservancy tanks with sufficient capacity can be considered as a last resort. The design of the conservancy tank must be done in consultation with the Local Authority, taking into account their capacity to empty the tanks. A class I mortar must be specified for bricklaying. Manholes must not be plastered. Dolomite aggregates must be specified for use in concrete for manhole products. Waterproofing of joints in precast manholes is mandatory. Waterproofing tests on manholes must be done after construction. Special care must be taken to construct the benching of a manhole with smooth transitions and according to specification.

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    All the necessary tools to open manholes shall be supplied with the Contract. Pumping sewage should only be considered after all alternatives have been investigated to the fullest consequence. Only if the alternatives are not feasible or impossible, pump stations can be considered. The design and planning of a sewage pumping station involves the integration of various disciplines. The location of a pump station is important and a comprehensive study should be made to ensure that the area to be served can be adequately drained.

    Furthermore attention should also be given to the location of the station as it could very well determine the overall development of the area. The preparation of an Operating and Maintenance Manual is mandatory and must be forwarded to the Department simultaneous with the Design Report and Tender Drawings. This Preliminary Manual shall describe the operation of the pump station and need not include the manuals of equipment suppliers. The final and complete Operating and Maintenance Manual shall be supplied one week after the successful commissioning of the pump station.

    A proper investigation should be carried out to determine the appropriate type of pump station to be provided. The Wet Well Station normally consists of a sump, which contains both the sewage discharged from the outfall sewer and the submersible pumps themselves. The Department is not in favour of submersible pumps and prefers suction pumps mounted at ground level. These stations are normally considered for smaller installations where the flow is not excessive.

    The sumps are not generally accompanied by above ground buildings when submersible pumps are used, with electrical switchgear housed in simple weatherproof kiosks. In a Dry Well Station, the pumps are located in the dry well adjacent to the wet well. Dry Well Stations have generally been used where the volume of sewage to be pumped is large, where the pumping head is large or where the depth of the incoming sewer is substantial. The arrangement of the dry well to the wet well should preferably allow for the pumps to have a positive suction head at all times, but this is not absolutely necessary.

    The requirements for sewer manholes given elsewhere in these guidelines apply to the design of pump station wells. All the necessary tools and equipment to operate the pump station shall be supplied with the Contract, except for the tools to carry out repair work. Design information and product detail are readily available from specialist pump manufacturers. The pumps shall be chosen and designed in order to maintain the duty flow and head for any given situation, and adequate provision in the design shall be made for a back-up system when pump maintenance or breakdowns occur.

    Cognisance must be taken of the safeguards as specified in paragraph 4 of Annexure C4. The number of bends should be limited and care must be taken to ensure that deposits that occur during off pumping periods do not prevent the subsequent pump operation. The preferred pipe material inside a pipe station is cast iron, ductile iron or corrosion protected steel pipes. Other safety features are non-slip treads and rubber mats in front of switchgear. When step irons are provided, they shall be of the fully plastic encapsulated type. Good pressure water supply for hosing down internal and external floors and walls should be encouraged, adequately dealing with such effluent to drain towards a suitable disposal point.

    It includes the requirements for the design flood frequencies for minor and major systems for the appropriate land use as well as relevant environmental issues. Tables 6. Table 6. A minimum recurrence interval of 2 years shall be used for minor systems except in high risk dolomite areas where the minimum recurrence interval shall be 5 years for minor systems. The stipulations in Section A. The minimum acceptable class of pipe to be used has to withstand a 45,0 kN per metre length of pipe load for class D Proofloading as described in SABS SANS , unless there is no possibility of vehicle loads occurring.

    In addition, if vehicle loads are expected, the strength of the pipe must be designed accordingly for traffic loads. Storm water pipes in dolomite areas shall be of HDPE except where otherwise approved by the Department. A minimum of two tools for each type is required. Subsurface drainage is an important element in the management of water. Although this document is specifically aimed at subsurface drainage for roads, the basic principles can be used for other applications.

    In dolomite areas subsurface drainage may not be allowed except if designed by a specialist in construction on dolomite areas. The water from these drains shall drain into a sump to be pumped into a suitable point of the storm water system around the building.